Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care

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Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care Joyceen S. Boyle | John W. Collins Patti Ludwig-Beymer | Margaret M. Andrews

Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care


Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care


Joyceen S. Boyle, PhD, RN, FTNSS, FAAN Adjunct Professor of Nursing College of Nursing University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Adjunct Professor of Nursing College of Nursing Augusta University Augusta, Georgia John W. Collins, PhD, MS, RN, FTNSS Dean and Associate Professor School of Nursing and Health Sciences Rochester University Rochester Hills, Michigan

Patti Ludwig-Beymer, PhD, RN, CTN-A, NEA-BC, CPPS, FTNSS, FAAN Associate Professor and Nurse Executive Concentration Coordinator College of Nursing Purdue University Northwest Hammond, Indiana Margaret M. Andrews, PhD, RN, FTNSS, FAAN Founding Dean and Professor Emerita School of Nursing University of Michigan–Flint Flint, Michigan

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Copyright © 2020 by Wolters Kluwer. Copyright © 2016 by Wolters Kluwer. Copyright © 2012 by Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Copyright © 2008, 2003, 1999 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered by the above-mentioned copyright. To request permission, please contact Wolters Kluwer at Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, via email at, or via our website at (products and services). 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America Cataloging-in-Publication Data available on request from the Publisher ISBN: 978-1-9752-2296-3 This work is provided “as is,” and the publisher disclaims any and all warranties, express or implied, including any warranties as to accuracy, comprehensiveness, or currency of the content of this work. This work is no substitute for individual patient assessment based upon healthcare professionals’ examination of each patient and consideration of, among other things, age, weight, gender, current or prior medical conditions, medication history, laboratory data and other factors unique to the patient. The publisher does not provide medical advice or guidance and this work is merely a reference tool. Healthcare professionals, and not the publisher, are solely responsible for the use of this work including all medical judgments and for any resulting diagnosis and treatments.

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Contributors to the Ninth Edition

Margaret M. Andrews, PhD, RN, FTNSS, FAAN Founding Dean and Professor Emerita School of Nursing University of Michigan–Flint Flint, Michigan

Marilyn K. Eipperle, DNP, RN, FNP-BC, CTN-A Nursing Faculty Lecturer II School of Nursing University of Michigan–Flint Flint, Michigan Mary Lou Clark Fornehed, PhD, RN Assistant Professor School of Nursing Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, Tennessee

Martha B. Baird, PhD, RN, FTNSS Clinical Assistant Professor School of Nursing University of Kansas Medical Center Kansas City, Kansas Heather M. Bowers, MSN, RN Clinical Assistant Professor College of Nursing Purdue University Northwest Hammond, Indiana

Linda Sue Hammonds, DNP, RN Associate Professor

Community Mental Health University of South Alabama Mobile, Alabama

Joyceen S. Boyle, PhD, RN, FTNSS, FAAN Adjunct Professor of Nursing College of Nursing University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Adjunct Professor of Nursing

Patti Ludwig-Beymer, PhD, RN, CTN-A, NEA-BC, CPPS, FTNSS, FAAN Associate Professor and Nurse Executive Concentration Coordinator College of Nursing Purdue University Northwest Hammond, Indiana Sandra J. Mixer, PhD, RN, FTNSS, CTN-A Associate Professor Emerita College of Nursing University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee Dula F. Pacquiao, EdD, MA, RN, FTNSS Professor Emerita School of Nursing Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Newark, New Jersey

College of Nursing Augusta University Augusta, Georgia

John W. Collins, PhD, MS, RN, FTNSS Dean and Associate Professor School of Nursing and Health Sciences Rochester University Rochester Hills, Michigan Melva Craft-Blacksheare, DNP, CNM, RN Associate Professor School of Nursing University of Michigan–Flint Flint, Michigan

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Contributors to the Ninth Edition

Julia L. Rogers, DNP, APRN, CNS, FNP-BC, FAANP Assistant Professor College of Nursing Purdue University Northwest Hammond, Indiana Family Nurse Practitioner Northwest Health Pulmonary and Critical Care Valparaiso, Indiana

Karina E. Strange, PhD, BSN, BA, RN Assistant Professor School of Nursing Duquesne University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

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I am pleased for the opportunity to write the Foreword once again, this time, for the ninth edi tion of the Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care book by Drs. Joyceen S. Boyle, John Collins, Patti Ludwig-Beymer, and Margaret M. Andrews. Each one of these authors has followed in the footsteps of the founder of transcultural nursing, the late Dr. Madeleine Leininger, a giant in the area of the relevance of culture, caring, health, and nursing; Dr. Leininger paved the way for what is now known in academic, political, and social/ public arenas as DEI—diversity, equity, and inclu sion—in the United States and around the world; however, her views included caring and the tran scendent. Drs. Boyle and Andrews saw the need to advance transcultural concepts in nursing care and wrote the first edition of this book, along with chapter contributions written by other authors, in 1989. Subsequent editions of this book have pro vided the foundation to study transcultural con cepts related to diverse cultures of individuals, groups, and communities and are used extensively in Schools of Nursing across the United States and in other nations. The first author, Dr. Joyceen Boyle, was mentored by the renowned nurse– anthropologist, Dr. JoAnn Glittenberg Hinrichs. Joyceen and I were classmates and privileged to be in the first transcultural nursing PhD program under the leadership of Dean Leininger at the University of Utah, College of Nursing in 1977. We were challenged by Dr. Leininger to study the substantive cultural, nursing, and caring knowl edge to cocreate new knowledge-models and theories through research for the development of the discipline and profession of transcultural nursing. In 2023, the University of Utah, College of Nursing celebrated its 75th anniversary, and in 2024, the Transcultural Nursing Society cel ebrates 50 years since its inception, showing the world how outstanding transcultural nursing graduates, like Drs. Boyle, Andrews, Ludwig Beymer, and Collins, mentored by Dr. Andrews, have sought to change the world of national and international transcultural nursing practice by means of their scholarship in the provision of culturally competent care. The chapters in this book, now in its ninth edition, reveal this schol arship by continuing to illuminate the application of the authors’ Transcultural Interprofessional Practice (TIP) Theory and Model introduced in the seventh edition. The TIP Model captures and communicates the widest range of the rich foundational knowledge of cultural and transcul tural nursing knowledge for diverse populations, such as addressing multicultural and population health across the lifespan, including the health of indigenous groups, palliative and end-of-life care, seeking person/patient/client-centered contribu tions to transcultural nursing assessments, trans cultural maternal–child care, pursuing cultural understanding of mental healthcare, creating culturally competent healthcare organizations, addressing environmental science and social jus tice, identification and assessment of transcul tural religious, ethical and moral foundations, animal contributions, and furthering global health via cognizance of the United Nations sus tainable development goals and many others. The world of transcultural nursing practice has been changed by the authors’ creation, commu nication, and dissemination of their TIP Model, which is more critical than ever, now that atten tion to cultural illness and health, cultural com petence, and interprofessionalism are advancing as the norm in contemporary nursing education, research, and practice, especially in the United States. Their book meets the new essentials and current directives of the American Association of Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.




Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 2021), the National League for Nursing (NLN), and the American Nurses Association (ANA) and other organiza tions for preparation of nurses in transcultural nursing to provide evidence-based culturally competent care to people. I would like to share the significance of each editor’s illustrious career, especially as writers and editors of this text, which has contributed to the remarkable evolution of transcultural nursing. Dr. Joyceen Boyle conducted research on mater nal and child health in a “squatter” or marginal settlement in Guatemala in the early 1980s in the middle of a 36-year civil war or “armed conflict.” This experience set the stage for further research and activism focusing on the myriad of relation ships between social equity and health, and con cern for migrants/asylum-seekers at the southern border of the United States. Joyceen also con ducted research with Salvadorans in Utah who had fled violence from that country. She helped many members from this research sample to obtain U.S. citizenship owing in large part to the signed human assurance forms proving their resi dence in the country for the allotted number of years. Joyceen also served as a consultant to the College of Nursing at the University of Baghdad before the highly contested Desert Storm and later Iraqi wars. Her efforts helped to preserve academic nursing education with direct commu nication with the late President Saddam Hussein. Cultural considerations, and caring behaviors, as well as human rights and migrant health led to her many years of work with Amnesty International. In 2019, she received the first Asylum Casework Award from Amnesty International, USA. Her concentration on human rights became the bed rock of Dr. Boyle’s public service and contributed to the development and evolution of her role as a global transcultural nurse. Major contributions of her career were educating undergraduate and graduate nursing students in community health and transcultural nursing, 14 years of which were spent teaching undergraduate nursing students at the University of Utah. Joyceen followed her fac ulty position in Utah with faculty positions at the Dr. John Collins joined the team of editors of this text in the eighth edition and continues as a coeditor on the ninth edition. Following his PhD in transcultural nursing under the leadership of Drs. Margaret Andrews and Marilyn McFarland, John served as Project Director of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funded Veteran Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Program at the University of Michigan, Flint. He identified and educated others about the unique culture of persons transitioning from military service (active duty) to veteran status, increased opportunities for veteran nursing edu cation, and made available important cultural information for the profession of nursing within the Veterans Administration. As a retired USAF Colonel and veteran myself, and a contributor to another HRSA grant for Veteran BSN education in primary care at Florida Atlantic University, I appreciated sharing over the years with John about his commitment for veterans and their fam ilies. Dr. Collins is now a nursing administrator, the Dean of the School of Nursing, at Rochester University, Michigan. As a university leader and educator, he is devoted to an emphasis on student and faculty transcultural awareness, spiritual underpinnings, and the provision of culturally competent care to people of all cultures and ages. John’s ethnonursing research has focused on using Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited. Medical College of Georgia and the University of Arizona, researching continuously and pub lishing widely. While working at the Medical College of Georgia, Joyceen formed a Qualitative Research Group with three of her graduate stu dents. For 12 years, they collected data and published extensively about African American mothers who provided care to adult children with HIV/AIDS. She served as the first President of the Transcultural Nursing Society. Dr. Boyle fur thered the commitment to humane and scientific knowledge-development by describing, explain ing, and interpreting transcultural nursing, which acknowledged diverse cultures, kinship systems, ideologies, history, and geopolitical environ ments of many nation states to provide theory guided, culturally congruent care.



Leininger’s culture care theory as the organizing framework for a federal project on cultural com petence. He is dedicated to continued research and teaching on cultural competence in nursing and healthcare, and addressing cultural aspects of end-of-life advanced care planning responding to the needs of culturally diverse persons, especially African Americans. Dr. Collins previously served on Wolters Kluwer’s PrepU editorial board as a Bias Editor. His research with transcultural nurs ing collaborators on advanced care planning of African Americans is published in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing . Currently, as a Fellow of the Transcultural Nursing Society, Transcultural Nursing Scholars’ group (FTNSS), he serves as Treasurer. Dr. Patti Ludwig-Beymer, a transcultural nurse executive and nursing educator, is another esteemed editor of this ninth edition. She was influenced early in her career by an introduction to anthropology, followed by conference atten dance at Duquesne University with key nursing leaders, Watson and Leininger. What she discov ered as the missing link in nursing was culture. She hurried to the University of Utah in 1981 for her PhD but discovered that Dr. Leininger had moved on to the research scientist role at Wayne State University. Dr. Leininger, however, was never far from any nurse interested in the study of transcultural nursing. Patti was greatly supported through prayer and loving kindness by Dr. Leininger as she was pursuing motherhood, which unfolded for Patti with the birth of her daughter, Theresa. At the University of Utah, Patti discovered that she was a PhD classmate of Dr. Margaret Andrews and had the distinct honor to be educated by Dr. Joyceen Boyle, and the coedi tors of this book, the contents of which were dis cussed among these authors and a few others in the early 1980s. Patti used Leininger’s “Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory” in many of her professional endeavors in nursing educa tion, administrative nursing, parish nursing, and staff nursing. She also contributed faithfully to the Transcultural Nursing Society in many lead ership roles and for many years was dedicated to

the TCN Scholars’ selection committee. Upon nursing in a large Chicago hospital, Patti became more aware of health disparities and the need for population health. She, with colleagues in the Chicago suburbs, established a Hispanic Community Center, named Genesis Center for Health and Empowerment for the community to address the Social (and Cultural) Determinants of Health. With her commitment to transcul tural nursing practice, Patti led interprofessional teams to improve and provide culturally congru ent care for persons with diabetes, asthma, and heart failure, and established key initiatives to improve immunizations and care for newborns, children, and adults. With this experience, Patti began to focus on creating culturally compe tent, complex healthcare organizations and has published widely on this subject. As an execu tive, she has always been guided in her practice by Transcultural Nursing, recognizing its impact on quality patient care and the care provided to nurses and other clinicians. As a faculty member, Dr. Ludwig-Beymer teaches executive nursing students. Major concepts and theories, includ ing the TIP Theory and Model essential to effec tive nursing practice, organizational culture, and population health, guide her teaching.

Joining Drs. Boyle, Collins, and Ludwig-Beymer for the ninth edition is Dr. Margaret (Marge) Andrews. Marge did not participate actively in the writing of the ninth edition; however, because of her past significant contributions as a coeditor of Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care , she is included among the lead editors listed on this edition. Dr. Andrews, who with Dr. Boyle and a select group of scholars, is the original creator of the dynamics of the text and a central coauthor of the first through eighth editions of the book, and the Transcultural Interprofessional theory and TIP Model. As an early transcultural/multi cultural sage, Dr. Andrews was a resolute inter national academic scholar and Pediatric Nurse Practitioner clinician working for 3 years in West Africa in the Igbo-dominated East Central State of Nigeria. Her early childhood experience under the care and love of her parents, and her African Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.



experience gave her a profound understanding of spiritual and religious healing, which too were the impetus to pursue additional education in trans cultural nursing. As a mentee of Dr. Leininger’s theoretical foundations and exploration in trans cultural nursing, a committed PhD and student of Dr. Boyle, followed by faculty leadership and Deanship roles at the University of Michigan, Flint, and the Transcultural Nursing Society, she exemplified a national and international com mitment to developing cultural competence for persons of diverse cultures and nursing’s profes sional transcultural capabilities. As an educator, Dr. Andrews focused on the workforce of nurses, preparing students, faculty, clinicians, and admin istrators to be thoroughly educated and clinically prepared to deliver high quality, accessible, theo retical, and evidence-based transcultural care to people of diverse backgrounds around the world. She was a great mentor and support to Drs. Marilyn McFarland and Hiba Wehbe-Alamah on her faculty, who continued the publication of Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing book after Leininger’s death in 2012. Dr. Andrews had a par ticular interest in the academic success of students from diverse and traditionally underrepresented populations. Her scholarly work addresses those issues as Editor of the Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare ( http:// ) and in other publications and presentations. Her publications not only point to the scholarship presented in this book but also the development of a core curriculum for trans cultural nursing that highlights the provision of culturally competent care based upon knowledge and skill of understanding cultural illness and health across the lifespan. Dr. Andrews is now retired from her illustrious career as Dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Michigan, Flint, where she led faculty and students to be successful in transcultural nursing academics, research, administration, and practice, fulfilling the mission of Dr. Leininger, that “…the profes sional nurse scientist and humanist is to discover, know, and creatively use culturally based care knowledge with its fullest meanings, expressions, The chapters in this ninth edition address the historical and current trends in transcultural knowledge for national and international com munities, innovative approaches in primary and preventive care, organizational cultures, inter professional care, and immigrant and refugee care with a focus on public health and policy. As men tioned, a most essential element of this book is the Andrews/Boyle Transcultural Interprofessional Practice (TIP) Model, a transcultural nursing/ healthcare theory and model that speaks to the need for a conceptual framework to guide trans cultural nursing education, research, administra tion, and practice. I recently was present at the International Council of Nurses (ICN) Congress in Montreal, Canada, attended by almost 7,000 nurses. It focused on leadership in nursing, the workforce, and the ongoing global nurse short age, advanced practice nursing and primary care, digital technology, strengthening health systems, communicable diseases and international health, nursing policy and global health. Although it was international, in my view what was missing from a theoretical perspective were transcultural nursing and caring paradigms, which would have synthesized important concepts for the interna tional practice of nursing. Although falling short of transcultural nursing theories, the Congress helped me realize once more the creativity of Madeleine Leininger and what an effective men tor she was. The motto articulated at the outset of the initiation of the Transcultural Nursing Society that “the cultural needs of people in the world would be met by nurses prepared in transcul tural nursing” sparked deep thoughts within me at this latest 2023 international conference of the need to continue to create and publish transcul tural nursing theory, which is more critical than ever. The authors’ theory and TIP Model illumi nate transcultural communication, teamwork, collaboration, and culturally competent skills. As an interprofessional and person-centered theory, Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited. symbols, and functions for healing, and to pro mote or maintain well-being (or health) with peo ple of diverse cultures in the world” (Leininger, 1991, p. 73).



TIP also emphasizes the contributions of persons (patients/clients) who are being served transcul turally to participate in sharing their views of their own cultural care practices with the healthcare team . We know that there are few care plans used in nursing within healthcare organizations that include the patient’s own views of their health and their cultural care practices. In a culturally diverse world and as the need for transcultural nursing becomes even more relevant, the rein forcement of theories, or the emergence of new transcultural nursing theories, will continue to improve the practice of person-centered care and ultimately enhance the discipline of transcultural nursing and contribute to the legacy created by Leininger in the 1950s. As we witness rapid changes in science, tech nology and artificial intelligence (AI) and robot ics, genetics, genomics, population healthcare, economics, geopolitics, transportation, demo graphics, migration and immigration, refugee challenges, religious ideologies, wars, and global issues including DEI, human rights, and social justice, nurses are challenged to understand new ways of engaging with persons and professional colleagues transculturally. In complexity sciences and the generation of enormous quantities of research of every affiliation and diverse philo sophical, political, technological, and religious perspective, we can see the interconnectedness of everything in the universe and the necessity for discernment and evaluation of what is really hap pening in the world. Theoretical and experiential cultural knowledge about our responsibilities to one another and the world community is thus growing and impacts the need for intense com munication to examine and solve problems both locally and globally. Continuing to identify rele vant issues to promote health, human safety, and improve the quality of life of all people is a major goal of thoughtful transcultural healthcare profes sionals. These developments have shaped Boyle, Collins, Ludwig-Beymer, and Andrews’ paradig matic, theoretical and practical thinking in the ninth edition. Their interest in addressing the his torical and ideological challenges throughout the

lifespan of the interconnectedness of all through their Transcultural Interprofessional Practice Model (TIP Theory) illuminates the necessity for increased collaboration and communication with all healthcare professionals and politicians who are serving diverse citizens, including indig enous peoples, to address the complexity of the age. Additionally, migration with multiple lan guages represented, the developments of inno vative approaches to learning, AI, robotics, and the digital age in general challenge all transcul tural nurses to appreciate the meaning of trans culturality or interculturality in the provision of culturally congruent, safe, and competent care. The key concepts identified in the TIP Model are context, the interprofessional healthcare team, communication, and the problem-solving pro cess . The cultural context (health-related beliefs and practices that weave together environmental, economic, social, religious, moral, legal, political, educational, biophysical, genetic, and technologi cal factors) encourage transcultural nurses and the interprofessional healthcare team (nurses, physicians, social workers, therapists, pharma cists, clients, and others) to become more aware of the meaning of cross-cultural communica tion among clients, families, families of choice, significant others, “folk” and traditional healers, and religious and spiritual healers and members of organizations to facilitate solving problems in a complex world. The problem-solving steps in this text include comprehensive holistic patient/ client assessment, mutual goal setting, planning, implementation of the plan of action and inter ventions, and evaluation of the plan for effec tiveness to achieve the stated goals and desired outcomes; providing culturally congruent and competent care; delivering quality care that is safe and affordable; and ensuring that the care is evidence-based with best practices.

As I reflect on the work of my colleagues, Joyceen Boyle, John Collins, Patti Ludwig Beymer, and Margaret Andrews, not only within the pages of this book, but also, what each of them has accomplished over many years as inno vators, leaders, teachers, researchers, classroom, Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.



and online educators, what comes to mind is their deep dedication and devotion to the disci pline and profession of Transcultural Nursing. Through their intellectual astuteness and cre ative actions, they are role models and mentors to students and other leaders who can enlighten and broaden transcultural care knowledge world wide. They are committed to the primary goal of transcultural nursing to facilitate culturally con gruent knowledge and care so that people of the world are understood, and their healthcare needs can be met within the dynamics of their cultures and global cultural understanding. A ninth edi tion of a book attests to the fact that students, faculty, and other practitioners will find within its pages relevant and challenging informa tion and a theory and model to learn about and apply to diverse culture groups, know how to relate to and serve them, conduct research, and facilitate the solving of problems. Today inter professional collaboration and communication are the key to change and effective transcultural care. The authors have captured that essence in their Transcultural Interprofessional Practice (TIP) Theory and Model presented in this work.

I wholeheartedly endorse this new edition. I am most proud to call these authors not only my col leagues but also my friends as they move forward in the evolution of what can be termed authentic transcultural nursing by means of collaboration and interprofessionalism. Nursing students, fac ulty, other healthcare professionals, and practi tioners of every healthcare and anthropological/ sociological discipline will be stimulated by the theory and the content expressed by the authors and the many contributors in this new edition to improve the health of and help people of diverse cultures worldwide. Leininger, M. (Ed.). (1991). Culture care diver sity & universality: A theory of nursing . National League for Nursing Press. With gratitude and caring thoughts, Marilyn A. Ray, RN, PhD, CTN-A, SfAA, FAAN, FESPCH (Hon), FNAP, HSGAHN, FTNSS, Hon. LLD Colonel (Retired), United States Air Force, Nurse Corps Professor Emeritus, and Adjunct Professor, Aging and Caring Science Program Specialist The Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida

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Nurses are accustomed to completing patient assessments and performing complete head-to toe assessments on every assigned patient on every shift while working at inpatient clinical facilities. Assessments are also completed multiple times within a given shift to assess possible changes in car diac, respiratory, neurologic, endocrine, and other bodily systems impacted by both chronic and acute disease. However, as a discipline, we have only min imally embraced the tenets of cultural assessment and the concepts provided in this text. To properly provide Culturally Competent Care, we must seek to better understand the values, beliefs, and lifeways of the patients and their families who we serve, as well as the physiologic assessment findings. To that end, given the large number of cultures and sub cultures in the world, it is impossible for nurses to know everything about them all; however, it is pos sible for nurses to develop excellent cultural assess ment and cross-cultural communication skills and to follow a systematic, orderly process for the deliv ery of culturally competent care. The Andrews/Boyle Transcultural Inter professional Practice (TIP) Model, which we introduced in the seventh edition of Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care, has been well received at national and international conferences and by readers. Chapters 1 and 2 emphasize the need for effective communication, efficient client- and patient-centered teamwork, teambuilding, and collaboration among members of the interprofes sional healthcare team. The TIP Model has a theoretical foundation in transcultural nursing that fosters communi cation and collaboration between and among all members of the team and enables multiple team members to manage complex, frequently multi faceted transcultural care issues, moral and ethical dilemmas, challenges, and care-related problems

in a collegial, respectful, synergistic manner. The process used in the TIP Model is an adaptation and application of the classic scientific problem solving method. The model has application in the care of people from different national origins, ethnicities, races, socioeconomic backgrounds, religions, genders, marital statuses, sexual orien tations, ages, abilities/disabilities, sizes, veteran status, and other characteristics used to compare one group of people to another. The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE), the American Association of Colleges of Nursing’s (AACN) Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (revised and adopted in 2021), Accred itation Commission for Education in Nursing, most state boards of nursing, and other accredit ing and certification bodies require or strongly encourage the inclusion of cultural aspects of care in nursing curricula. This, of course, underscores the importance of the purpose, goal, and objectives for Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care , ninth edition. Purpose: To contribute to the development of theoretically based transcultural nursing knowl edge and the advancement of transcultural nurs ing practice. Goal: To increase the delivery of culturally competent care to individuals, families, groups, communities, and institutions. Objectives: 1. To apply a transcultural nursing framework to guide nursing practice in diverse health care settings across the lifespan. 2. To analyze major concerns and issues encountered by nurses in providing trans cultural nursing care to individuals, fami lies, groups, communities, and institutions.

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3. To expand the theoretical basis for using concepts from the natural and behavioral sciences and from the humanities to pro vide culturally competent nursing care. 4. To provide a contemporary approach to transcultural nursing that includes effective cross-cultural communication, team work, and interprofessional collaborative practice. The editors and chapter authors share a com mitment to: ●● Foster the development and maintenance of a disciplinary knowledge base and expertise in culturally competent care that positively impacts nurses’ clinical judgment. ●● Synthesize existing theoretical and research knowledge regarding nursing care of dif ferent ethnic/minority/marginalized and other disenfranchised populations. ●● Identify and describe evidence-based prac tice and best practices in the care of diverse individuals, families, groups, communities, and institutions. ●● Create an interdisciplinary and interprofes sional knowledge base that reflects hetero geneous healthcare practices within various cultural groups. ●● Identify, describe, and examine methods, theories, and frameworks appropriate for developing knowledge that will improve health and nursing care to minority, under served, underrepresented, disenfranchised, and marginalized populations. Recognizing Individual Differences and Acculturation We believe that it is tremendously important to recognize the myriad of health-related values, beliefs, and lifeways that exist within popula tion categories. For example, differences are rarely recognized among people who identify themselves as Hispanic/Latino yet this group includes people from along the United States– Mexico border, Mexican Americans, Puerto

Ricans, Guatemalans, Cubans (such as those living in “little Havana” in Miami), as well as other Central and South American countries. These individuals may share some similarities (e.g., speaking Spanish) but also have distinct cultural differences. It should be noted that people from Spain do not necessarily cultur ally self-identify with individuals from the cul tural groups previously cited; rather, they take pride in being Spanish and speaking Castilian Spanish, the term for the dialects from the northern half of Spain. This brief explanation demonstrates the necessity of cultural assess ment with individual patients and their families; assumptions beyond holding knowledge (basic tenets generally held by members of a cultural group) can result in gross misunderstandings by healthcare professionals and may estrange the patient–nurse relationship.

We would also like to comment briefly on the terms minority and ethnic minorities . These terms are perceived by some to be offensive because they may connote inferiority and marginalization. Although we have used these terms occasionally, we prefer to make reference to a specific culture or subculture whenever possible. We refer to cat egorizations according to race, ethnicity, religion, or a combination, such as ethnoreligion, but we make every effort to avoid using any label in a pejorative manner. We do believe, however, that occasionally the concepts or terms minority or ethnicity are limiting, not only for those to whom the label may apply but also for nursing theory and practice. We believe the concept of culture is richer and has more theoretical usefulness and that diverse cultures is a descriptor of the unique ness and individuality within the breadth and scope of both cultural universality and distinc tiveness. In addition, we believe and espouse that all individuals have cultural attributes while not all are from a minority group or claim a particular ethnicity. Look no further than the familial food traditions and the manner of celebration of a holi day to begin to identify the cultural distinctions of your own family and those of your parents and Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.



grandparents. Further, many cultures today draw characteristics from several previously distinctive culture groups, due to population migration, intermarriage among individuals from differ ent cultures, and the impact of changing family dynamics. Critical Thinking Linked to Delivering Culturally Competent Care We believe that nurses’ critical thinking, cul tural assessment, and clinical judgment and problem-solving abilities will provide the nec essary knowledge and skills on which to base transcultural nursing care. Using this approach, we believe that nurses will be able to provide culturally competent and contextually meaning ful care for clients from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds, rather than simply memorizing the esoteric health beliefs and practices of any spe cific cultural group. Culturally competent nurses must acquire the skills needed to assess clients from virtually any and all groups they encounter throughout their professional life and to provide culturally competent and contextually meaning ful care for clients—individuals, groups, families, communities, and institutions. Many educational programs in nursing are now teaching transcultural nursing content across the curriculum. We suggest that Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care be used by faculty members to integrate transcultural content across the curriculum in the following manner: ●● Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 should be used in the first clinical courses when students are learning how to conduct health his tories, health assessments, and physical examinations. ●● Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 include nursing care across the lifespan and are particularly useful in courses that focus on the nursing care of: The childbearing family Children Adults and older adults

●● Chapter 9 examines approaches for creat ing and maintaining culturally competent healthcare organizations, including the need to understand and address popula tion health. The chapter is useful in courses that focus on nursing leadership and management. ●● Chapters 10 and Chapters 11 align with mental health nursing and family and com munity nursing in the appropriate specialty nursing courses. Chapter 11 also has new information about Emergency and Disaster Planning, for individuals and communities. ●● Chapter 12 explores the interconnections between religion, culture, and nursing, in cluding health-related beliefs and practices of selected religions. ●● Chapter 13 focuses on competence in ethi cal decision-making and includes updates on ethical implications for population health.

New to the Ninth Edition All content in this edition was reviewed and updated to capture the nature of the changing healthcare delivery system, new research studies and theoretical advances, emphasis on effective communication, teamwork and collaboration, and to explain how nurses and other healthcare providers can use culturally competent skills to improve the care of clients, families, groups, and communities. In writing the ninth edition, we have been impressed with the developments in the field of transcultural nursing and inclu ded appropriate current trends and issues. The Andrews/Boyle Transcultural Interprofessional Practice Model provides a contemporary frame work for putting the client or patient first and expanding the traditional notion of those who should be included as members of the healthcare team. While credentialed healers such as nurses, physicians, pharmacists, social workers, inter preters, and therapists remain key to health, well ness, and healing, the team also includes others whom the clients or patients believe contribute Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.



to their care, such as folk, indigenous, spiritual, and religious healers. This expansion of the team membership requires openness by credentialed healers to those with different scopes of prac tices, health belief systems, and healing practices. Clients or patients should always be included as integral members of the healthcare team as their understanding, acceptance, and cooperation are essential to the delivery of culturally competent healthcare. Similarly, the conceptualization of family and/or significant other has expanded to include the needs of those with diverse sexual orientations and gender identities (LGBTQ+), reflecting changing norms in some cultures, soci eties, and nations. Lastly, the Andrews/Boyle TIP Practice Model includes service animals, pets, and other sentient beings that clients and patients find therapeutic and might request as part of their plan of care. New Contributors We welcome Dr. Patti Ludwig-Beymer as a con tributing editor to the book. Dr. Ludwig-Beymer was part of the original group that conceptual ized this book and has been a chapter contribu tor for all eight previous editions of Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care . Dr. Ludwig-Beymer is a long-standing Transcultural Nursing Society colleague and friend from Purdue University Northwest College of Nursing in Hammond, Indiana, where she is currently Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Nurse Executive MSN Concentration. Dr. Ludwig-Beymer earned a diploma in nursing from Mercy Hospital School of Nursing, a BSN and MSEd from Duquesne University, and a PhD in nursing from University of Utah. Dr. Ludwig-Beymer has published in the areas of transcultural nursing, population health, and organizational culture and has a rich history in both clinical nursing roles and as a nursing educator. We are pleased to welcome Dr. Julia Rogers, contributing author for the newly revised Chapter 3, Cultural Competence in the History and Physical Examination. Dr. Rogers received

her associate and baccalaureate degrees in nurs ing from Purdue North Central and her MSN and Doctor of Nursing Practice degrees from Valparaiso University. She is a Family Nurse Practitioner and is an Associate Professor at Purdue University Northwest in Hammond, Indiana. Her research interests include patho physiology, culture, 3D visualization for nursing education, and enculturation of new faculty. She has authored and presented on an array of topics for both nurse educators and nurse practitioners. We are very pleased that Ms. Heather Bowers has joined us as the contributing author of Chapter 6, Transcultural Perspectives in the Nursing Care of Children. Ms. Bowers is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Purdue University Northwest College of Nursing, where her teach ing focuses on pediatrics, community health, and drug dosage calculation. Ms. Bowers earned a BSN from Bethel College, her MSN from Indiana Wesleyan University, and is a PhD candidate at Liberty University. Her research interests include health and education disparities, nurs ing education, and nursing faculty satisfaction and retention. Ms. Bowers has an extensive clini cal background providing care for marginalized pediatric populations, and she is passionate about health equity and social justice. Drs. Mary Lou Fornehed, Katrina Strange, and Sandra Mixer are new chapter contributors and collaborated to write Chapter 8, Transcultural Perspectives in the Care of Older Adults. Dr. Fornehed is Associate Professor of Nursing at Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee, and graduated with a PhD and post masters in nursing education in 2017 from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. Her research focus has been palliative and end of-life care within the older adult, adult, and pedi atric populations. Dr. Fornehed is an Acute Care Nurse Practitioner and has been caring for adults and older adult patients with acute and chronic problems, for 26 years. Dr. Strange recently earned her PhD in Nursing at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, and recently began her position as an

Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.



Assistant Professor at the Duquesne University School of Nursing. Before becoming a nurse, Dr. Strange earned a BA in Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology at Vassar College and has served in the U.S. Peace Corps, AmeriCorps, and Nurse Corps. These service experiences inspired her interests in transcultural nursing and commu nity health. Dr. Strange has practiced in feder ally qualified and nonprofit clinics, where she has provided care and advocacy for vulnerable populations experiencing health disparities. Her research interests include faith influences on the health of older adults and the improvement of community health nursing education. Dr. Sandra J. Mixer is Associate Professor Eme rita in the College of Nursing at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, and is a long time Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS) col league and collaborator, and has served in many leadership positions within the organization. She earned her PhD in nursing education/trans cultural nursing cognate from the University of Northern Colorado. Dr. Mixer’s scholarship uses the framework of culture care and academic– community–practice partnerships to improve the health of vulnerable populations, enhance quality of life, foster dignified death, and develop health care providers’ cultural competency. Dr. Mixer has led interdisciplinary partnerships in urban and rural areas with faith and community lead ers, residents, and practice partners. Her research has been supported by several grants, including a $2.6 million HRSA award to transform RN roles in community-based integrated primary care set tings caring for underserved populations. Finally, we welcome Dr. Linda Sue Hammonds, contributing author of Chapter 10, Transcultural Perspectives in Mental Health Nursing. Dr. Hammonds is an Associate Professor and Doctor of Nursing Practice Coordinator at the University of South Alabama. Dr. Hammonds earned a MSN and Family Nurse Practitioner from East Caroline University, and her DNP with a Psych Mental Health Nurse Practitioner from the University of South Alabama. Dr. Hammonds has published in the areas of adult and pediatric mental disorders,

abuse and neglect of vulnerable populations, and multiple transcultural nursing topics.

Chapter Pedagogy Learning Activities

All of the chapters include review questions and learning activities to promote critical think ing and improve clinical judgment. In addition, learning objectives and key terms are included at the beginning of each chapter to help readers understand the purpose and intent of the content. Evidence-Based Practice Features Current research studies related to the content of the chapter are presented as Evidence-Based Practice boxes. We have included a section in each box describing clinical implications of the research. Case Studies Case studies, when used, are based often on the authors’ actual clinical experiences and research findings and are presented to make conceptual linkages to illustrate how concepts are applied in healthcare settings. Case studies are oriented to assist the reader to begin to develop cultural competence with selected cultures. Text Organization Part One: Foundations of Transcultural Nursing

This first section focuses on the foundational aspects of transcultural nursing. The develop ment of transcultural nursing frameworks that include concepts from the natural and behav ioral sciences is described as they apply to nurs ing practice. Because nursing perspectives are used to organize the content in Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care , the reader will not find a chapter purporting to describe the nursing care of a specific cultural group. Instead, the nursing needs of culturally diverse groups are used to Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited.

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