Orthopaedic Knowledge Update®: Musculoskeletal Infection 2 Print + Ebook (AAOS - American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)

Chapter 27: Necrotizing Fasciitis and Other Complicated Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections

71. Ellis R, Ellis C: Dog and cat bites. Am Fam Physician 2014;90(4):239-243. 72. Saul D, Dresing K: Surgical treatment of bites [Article in German]. Oper Orthop Traumatol 2018;30(5):321-341. This retrospective study examined bite injuries that were seen by healthcare professionals in Germany and found that 46% were caused by dogs and 32% by cats. Level of evidence: II. 73. Jaindl M, Oberleitner G, Endler G, Thallinger C, Kovar FM: Management of bite wounds in children and adults-an anal ysis of over 5000 cases at a level I trauma centre. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2016;128(9-10):367-375. 74. Fooks AR, Cliquet F, Finke S, et al: Rabies. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017;3:17091. 75. Touzet-Roumazeille S, Jayyosi L, Plenier Y, Guyot E, Guillard T, François C: Surgical management of animal bites in children [Article in French]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2016;61(5):560-567. 76. Jenkins TC, Knepper BC, Jason Moore S, et al: Microbiology and initial antibiotic therapy for injection drug users and non-injection drug users with cutaneous abscesses in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acad Emerg Med 2015;22(8): 993-997. 77. Lim J, Pavalagantharajah S, Verschoor CP, et al: Infectious diseases, comorbidities and outcomes in hospitalized people who inject drugs (PWID) infections in persons who inject drugs. PLoS One 2022;17(4):e0266663. This retrospective study from 2013 to 2018 showed that most abscesses in people who inject drugs were located on the upper extremities. Level of evidence: II. 78. Subramaniam S, Bober J, Chao J, Zehtabchi S: Point-of-care ultrasound for diagnosis of abscess in skin and soft tissue infections. Acad Emerg Med 2016;23(11):1298-1306. 79. Hindy JR, Quintero-Martinez JA, Lahr BD, et al: Incidence of monomicrobial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A pop ulation-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota – 2006 to 2020. Open Forum Infect Dis 2022;9(7):ofac190. This retrospective US population–based study from 2006 to 2020 showed that 38% of patients with S aureus bacteremia had SSTIs as a potential source. Level of evidence: II. 80. Hindy JR, Haddad SF, Kanj SS: New drugs for methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infec tions. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2022;35(2):112-119.

diagnosis in conditions where ultrasonography may be limited. 63. Shittu A, Deinhardt-Emmer S, Vas Nunes J, Niemann S, Grobusch MP, Schaumburg F: Tropical pyomyositis: An update. Trop Med Int Health 2020;25(6):660-665. This review on tropical pyomyositis suggested that there is strong evidence that Panton-Valentine leucocidin is the key toxin associated with disease. 64. Habeych ME, Trinh T, Crum-Cianflone NF: Purulent infec tious myositis (formerly tropical pyomyositis). J Neurol Sci 2020;413:116767. This overview on purulent infectious myositis highlighted the need for combination of percutaneous or open surgical drainage along with antimicrobial therapy (including MRSA coverage). 65. Loder RT: The demographics of dog bites in the United States. Heliyon 2019;5(3):e01360. This US retrospective study from 2005 to 2013 reported a mean annual incidence of dog bites of 1.1 per 1,000 indi viduals with most located on the upper extremity. Level of evidence: II. 66. Bula-Rudas FJ, Olcott JL: Human and animal bites. Pediatr Rev 2018;39(10):490-500. This review on human and animal bites highlights the impor tance of amoxicillin-clavulanate as the antibiotic of choice for prophylaxis and empirical therapy in people nonallergic to penicillin. 67. Razafindrazaka H, Redl S, Aouchiche F, et al: Atteinte osseuse dans la maladie des griffes du chat. La Revue de Médecine Interne 2021;42(12):875-880. Approximately 30 cases of bartonellosis with bone involve ment were reported. Level of evidence: IV. 68. Zajkowska J, Król M, Falkowski D, Syed N, Kamie ń ska A: Capnocytophaga canimorsus – An underestimated danger after dog or cat bite – Review of literature. Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(2):289-295. 69. Seegmueller J, Arsalan-Werner A, Koehler S, Sauerbier M, Mehling I: Cat and dog bite injuries of the hand: Early versus late treatment. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020;140(7):981-985. This retrospective study from 2010 to 2016 demonstrated that early management of cat and dog bite injuries results in less second-look surgeries and shorter hospitalization. Level of evidence: II. 70. Koshy JC, Bell B: Hand infections. J Hand Surg Am 2019;44(1):46-54. This is a review focusing on the importance of identifying serious hand infections requiring urgent or emergent treat ment including necrotizing fasciitis.

Section 6: Bone, Joint, and Soft-Tissue Infections

This review highlights that several antibiotics received a fast track approval by the FDA for the management of SSTI caused by MRSA but that the current Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines and the recently published UK guidelines only consider them as alternative choices. Copyright © Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited. 2023


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Orthopaedic Knowledge Update ® : Musculoskeletal Infection 2

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