Lippincott Certification Review Medical-Surgical Nursing


Chapter 8

Box 8-3: Types of Leukemia

The following chart compares the incidence and signs and symptoms for various types of leukemia. Leukemia Incidence Signs and Symptoms

Acute leukemias Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

• Children under the age of 5 have the highest risk for developing ALL. Risk declines into the teens and 20s, then increases again after age 50. • Survival rates are higher in children than adults, and the prognosis for ALL is better than that of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). • Primarily affects those over 45; the incidence increases with age. • Survival rates for AML have improved with the use of autologous and allogenic bone marrow transplants. • Primarily affects men; the average age of diagnosis is 70 years. • CLL runs a long course (4–10 years) and rarely progresses to acute leukemia. • The average age at diagnosis is around 65 years of age. • CML may take years to cause issues and has had treatment breakthroughs including the oral medication imatinib (Gleevec).

• Anemia with fatigue and pallor • Bleeding, such as ecchymosis, gingival or rectal bleeding, and petechiae • Fever • Hepatosplenomegaly • Decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin level, and platelet count; lymphoblasts present on peripheral blood smear • Infections, particularly those of the mucous membranes, respiratory tract, and skin • Normal, decreased, or increased WBC count • Bone or joint pain, fever without infection, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss • Enlarged spleen • Lymphadenopathy • Lymphocytosis (on peripheral blood smear) • Hepatosplenomegaly • Anemia and increased WBC and platelet counts • Presence of Philadelphia chromosome on genetic screening

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

Chronic leukemias Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

From Markman, M. (2022). Types of leukemia . City of Hope.

Box 8-4: Blood and Plasma Transfusion Compatibility

For a blood or plasma transfusion to be safe, the patient and donor must have compatible blood types. The chart below allows you to determine compatibility. Keep in mind that, before transfusing begins, the blood product must be crossmatched to fully establish donor–recipient compatibility. Blood Product Compatibility Chart Recipient Blood Type Compatible Whole Blood Type Compatible Red Blood Cell Type Compatible Plasma Type (Rh Match Not Needed)

O Rh+ O Rh− A Rh+ A Rh− B Rh+ B Rh− AB Rh+

O Rh+, O Rh−

O Rh+, O Rh−

O, A, B, AB O, A, B, AB

O Rh−

O Rh−

A Rh+, A Rh−

A Rh+, A Rh−, O Rh+, O Rh−


A Rh−

A Rh−, O Rh−

B Rh+, B Rh− Copyright © 2025 Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited. B Rh+, B Rh−, O Rh+, O Rh−

B Rh−

B Rh−, O Rh−

AB Rh+, AB Rh−

AB Rh+, AB Rh−, A Rh+, A Rh−, B Rh+, B Rh−, O Rh+, O Rh− AB Rh−, A Rh−, B Rh−, O Rh−


AB Rh−

AB Rh−


From American Society of Hematology. (2023). Blood safety and matching . blood-basics/blood-safety-and-matching

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