Chou: OKU: Foot and Ankle 7

Board of Directors, 2023-2024 Kevin J. Bozic, MD, MBA, FAAOS President Paul Tornetta III, MD, PhD, FAAOS First Vice President Annunziato Amendola, MD, FAAOS Second Vice President Michael L. Parks, MD, FAAOS Treasurer Felix H. Savoie III, MD, FAAOS Past President Alfonso Mejia, MD, MPH, FAAOS Chair, Board of Councilors Joel L. Mayerson, MD, FAAOS Chair-Elect, Board of Councilors Michael J. Leddy III, MD, FAAOS Secretary, Board of Councilors Armando F. Vidal, MD, FAAOS Chair, Board of Specialty Societies Adolph J. Yates, Jr, MD, FAAOS Chair-Elect, Board of Specialty Societies Michael P. Bolognesi, MD, FAAOS Secretary, Board of Specialty Societies Lisa N. Masters Lay Member Evalina L. Burger, MD, FAAOS Member at Large Chad A. Krueger, MD, FAAOS Member at Large Toni M. McLaurin, MD, FAAOS Member at Large Monica M. Payares, MD, FAAOS Member at Large Thomas E. Arend, Jr, Esq, CAE Chief Executive Officer (ex-officio)

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The material presented in the Orthopaedic Knowledge Update ® : Foot and Ankle 7 has been made available by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) for educational purposes only. This material is not intended to present the only, or necessarily best, methods or procedures for the medical situations discussed, but rather it is intended to represent an approach, view, statement, or opinion of the author(s) or producer(s), which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. Medical providers should use their own, independent medical judgment, in addition to open discussion with patients, when developing patient care recommendations and treatment plans. Medical care should always be based on a medical provider’s expertise that is individually tailored to a patient’s circumstances, preferences and rights. Some drugs or medical devices demonstrated in AAOS courses or described in AAOS print or electronic publications have not been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or have been cleared for specific uses only. The FDA has stated that it is the responsibility of the physician to determine the FDA clearance status of each drug or device he or she wishes to use in clinical practice and to use the products with appropriate patient consent and in compliance with applicable law. Furthermore, any statements about commercial products are solely the opin ion(s) of the author(s) and do not represent an AAOS endorsement or evaluation of these products. These statements may not be used in advertising or for any commercial purpose. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written per mission from the publisher. ISBN: 978-1-9752-1343-5 Library of Congress Control Number: Cataloging in Publication data available on request from publisher. Printed in the United States of America Published 2025 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Staff American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Anna Salt Troise, MBA, Chief Commercial Officer Hans Koelsch, PhD, Director, Publishing Lisa Claxton Moore, Senior Manager, Editorial Steven Kellert, Senior Editor 9400 West Higgins Road Rosemont, Illinois 60018 Copyright 2025 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Copyright © Wolters Kluwer, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of the content is prohibited. 2023

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