BRS Neuroanatomy

19. C. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the medial preoptic nucleus of the preoptic region. 20. D. A pituitary adenoma is characterized by amenorrhea and visual field defects, specifically a bitemporal hemianopia. The amenorrhea–galactorrhea syndrome includes visual abnormalities, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and elevated serum prolactin. 21. C. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus receives direct input from the retina and plays a role in the control of circadian rhythms. The tuberculum cinereum overlies the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The limbic system has reciprocal connections with the hypothalamus. The striae medullares separate the dorsal aspect of the pons from the dorsal aspect of the medulla. 22. B. The arcuate nucleus is a periventricular nucleus in the tuber cinereum. It contains neurons that produce hypothalamic-releasing factors and gives rise to the tuberohypophyseal tract. The alveus, fimbria, crus, body, and column are components of the fornix. 23. D. The retina projects posteriorly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which plays a role in circadian rhythms, including activity-related behavior, hormone release, and feeding patterns. The retina does not project to the other nuclei listed. 24. E. An expanding pituitary tumor would most likely affect the inferior/ventral aspects of the hypo thalamus first. The ventromedial nucleus is a satiety center, when lesioned—hyperphagia. The other hypothalamic nuclei are not involved with appetite. 25. A. The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus extends from the posterior hypothalamic nucleus to the caudal medulla and projects to autonomic centers of the brainstem. It contains both ascending and descending fibers. 26. E. The amygdaloid nuclear complex is interconnected with the hypothalamus via the stria termi nalis and the ventral amygdalofugal pathway. 27. B. The fornix contains 2.7 million fibers and is the largest projection to the hypothalamus. 28. C. The medial forebrain bundle interconnects the septal area, the hypothalamus, and the mid brain tegmentum. 29. B. The fornix projects from the subiculum of the hippocampal formation to the mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. The fornix projects to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, septal nuclei, lateral preoptic region, and the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. 30. E. The stria terminalis lies in the sulcus terminalis; it separates the head of the caudate nucleus from the thalamus and interconnects the amygdaloid nuclear complex with the hypothalamus. 31. B. The column of the fornix lies between the medial and lateral hypothalamus. 32. G. Amenorrhea and galactorrhea result from a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, the most common type of pituitary adenoma. 33. H. Hemorrhagic lesions in the mammillary bodies and in the periaqueductal gray of the mid brain are seen in Wernicke encephalopathy. 34. B. Craniopharyngiomas—congenital epidermoid tumors—are derived from Rathke pouch; they are the most common supratentorial tumors found in children. 35. D. Destruction of the anterior hypothalamic nuclei results in hyperthermia. 36. A. Stimulation of the ventromedial nuclei inhibits the urge to eat, resulting in emaciation (ca chexia or anorexia). Destruction of these nuclei results in hyperphagia and rage. 37. F. Bilateral lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are involved in hyperphagia and rage. 38. E. Bilateral lesions of the posterior hypothalamic nuclei result in the inability to thermoregulate (poikilothermia). Bilateral destruction of only the posterior aspect of the lateral hypothalamic nucleus results in anorexia and emaciation. 39. C. Destruction of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei or the supraopticohypophyseal tract results in diabetes insipidus with polydipsia and polyuria. 40. H. Wernicke encephalopathy results from thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) deficiency.

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